difference between c and ada language

pleased to use them. Unlike C, Ada does not have a preprocessor and does not merge source and header files to create compile units. The generic facility of Ada is an excellent model of type parametrization. Its defenders correctly assert that the built-in privacy of class members that are not explicitly declared public means that it is impossible to write efficient code that makes use of two distinct classes A and B: a member function of A will only have access to the private representation of A and will have to use a procedural interface (with a potentially large execution penalty) to access the private representation of B. Since the conversion is performed via a compiler engine, the resultant code is optimized and guaranteed to execute. Other languages including C++, Java, Python, Ruby, Perl and PHP support references. Ada 95 has an even richer set of parametrization mechanisms than Ada 83. Do you have any data about the percentage of your coverage of Ada-C/C++ Changer? standards. C++ was developed with the intent of extending the procedural C language to include OO capabilities. Behind the obvious enthusiasm of the software community, there lies the fact that OOP simplifies the design and construction of software systems. Multidimensional arrays are defined as arrays of arrays; multidimensional arrays must be declared with constant bounds (after the first) and have no built-in descriptors, which Ada requires to support array attributes. Ada-C/C++ Changer is not an Ada to C language syntax converter, which is very inefficient. the "for" loop notation, using "&&" instead of "and", and operators such as "<<"). Child packages can selectively request visibility of the private parts of the parent packages. Ada provides a means to specify those data limits concisely. There is much worse C++ specific ambiguities. (We are aware of an OS/2 port.) Instead, the name of the package specified in … The C++ Programming Language, 2d edition. Comparison of the ADA (as construed by the courts) and the ADA Amendments Act in the House (H.R. in C++ by inheriting from several classes. There is no array assignment: if an array is a pointer, then an assignment to the name of the array is a pointer assignment that aliases the array, not a data transfer operation. Ada-C/C++ Changer is not an Ada to C language syntax converter, which is very inefficient. "); end Hello; If readability is your main concern then you should avoid this type of use clause. For example, a 'begin-end' bracketing is more natural-sounding than {..}. Ada 95 programming techniques exist to obtain the effect of mixins by combining type extensions with renaming: One other common use of multiple inheritance is to provide visibility. All data in a program has limits to its set of valid values in that program. These 2) Ada is way harder to write than C, unless you're very proficient with it, of course. C was not, and can easily be (ab)used to make impenetrable code. The readability of Ada is a substantial money-saver. Exploring Ada. The Ada programmer may be frustrated when his code is rejected by the compiler, but he is much less likely to be surprised by the behavior of code that compiles without error. mature and that yields cleaner and safer software than is produced with any other All Rights Reserved. Ada was the first mainstream language to incorporate constructs for multi-tasking and for real-time programming. C++ basically started as good old late-60's C with OO features bolted on, and C# is … C was designed to make construction of compilers easier (not the programmer's job) back in the days when 16KB was a lot of RAM and hard drives were as big as industrial air conditioners. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Background: The Americans with Disabilities Act is federal civil rights legislation that was signed into law in 1990 to address discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, public accommodations, transportation and telecommunications as well as state and local government services. tion through writing or sign language rather than through speech. The question isn't fun, though, if the answer isn't in some way unexpected! A few keywords have been added to the list from Ada 83 and others have been put to novel uses (e.g., with in type extensions), but the sound of the new language remains the same. A template indicates that a unit has one or more class parameters. The language reference indicates that out-of-bounds indices are illegal, except that they are allowed to point one element past the end of the array (for reasons having to do with common programming idioms for iterating over an array); but there are not automatic bound checks at run-time. In contrast, C and C++ emphasize ease of writing, rather than ease of reading, resulting in a greater use of operators, the use of terser notations (the conditional expression, for example), and an absence of keywords (most noticeably in declarations). Conversion tools like AdaMagic only cover 70% - 80%. To make matters worse, both C++ and C# derive the core of their language from C, which is actually a decade older than Ada. The assertion is true, but to replicate the mechanisms that Ada readily supplies, it takes more than just the C++ language--it requires a number of utilities and tools that are common in the UNIX environment, but are in no way standardized and are not part of the language. OOP brings to use the fundamental insight that types should be enriched by extending what they inherit, rather than being mere copies of their ancestors. One of the most striking aspects of the C and C++ communities is the number of language idioms that are part of the programming culture. The latest revisions of the Ada language, Ada 2005 and Ada 2012, make enhanced software integrity possible. 527 U.S. at 479. C++ follows the same approach as the C language: arrays are closely related to pointers, and the indexing operation is described directly in terms of pointer arithmetic. It always increments or decrements a loop index within a discrete range. For example, people who are blind may give and receive information audibly rather than in writing and people who are deaf may give and receive information through writing or sign language rather than through speech. On the surface, both references and pointers are very similar, both are used to … It is written in C and is hosted on Unix. systems programming language. It might be argued that the multiple inheritance (MI) model of the current version of C++ is superior to what is proposed for Ada 95, but this is a most minor point. Ada code does what it says, plainly. In this area, C++ is a non-starter, even compared with Ada 83. The study of idioms has produced such entertaining books as The C Puzzle Book and it is clear that C and C++ programmers enjoy enormously the 'guess what this computes?' The most basic way it simplifies design and construction is through ease of reuse. Ada text is dense in keywords, which some mistakenly consider noisy and redundant. Ada 95 offers the chance to leapfrog C++ by extending the language in mostly in the same language, so that interface problems are few. to the 'user beware' philosophy of C and C++) and a culture that is now 10 years improvements come to a language with already incomparable type safety (in contrast Only environment gives the right answer: if abcd is type name then Foo is a function taking abcd-typed argument that return SomeType and if abcd is object name then Foo is object of type SomeType initialized with abcd value. Programmers cannot define an array over an enumerated type, and there is never any type checking on indices. The readability has a profound effect on program maintenance and was one of the obviously successful guiding criteria in the design of the syntax of Ada. Ada is a state-of-the art programming language that development teams worldwide are using for critical software: from microkernels and small-footprint, real-time embedded systems to large-scale enterprise applications, and everything in between. Every large project A standard library of real-time primitives may eventually evolve and become part of C++, just as the stream facility has evolved from an interesting user-defined class to a recognized part of the language. Always look at the source code. Since the conversion is performed via a compiler engine, the resultant code is optimized and guaranteed to execute. A task force, consisting of representatives from the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA), convened to discuss language in diabetes care and education. C and C++ support pointers which are different from most of the other programming languages. made as to the absolute advantage of one over the other. This mechanism is as expressive as the C++ friend declarations and is independent of inheritance. Ada 95 implements OOP by a straightforward extension of the notion of derived type [Ada 95 Mapping Specification and Rationale (Version 4.1)]. Look at the other programs. Ada was originally designed with readability in mind. Here we are going to tell you exactly what the differences between these two operators are. By selectively declaring certain functions as friends of a given class, the permission is granted to write code using the private representation from outside of the class. This success is mostly due to the fact that C++ is much better Look at the other programs. C and C++ depend critically on their environment. It is still virtually the only language to do so in a coherent fashion. ... pidigits; source secs mem gz busy cpu load Ada 2012 GNAT: 0.74 4,596 1130 0.75 1% 0% 0% 100% C gcc: 0.73 However, experienced developers in system programming languages (e.g. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1992. 3195) and as passed by the Senate (S. 3406) 5 Regulatory Authority In Sutton , the Court held that “no agency has been delegated authority to interpret the term ‘disability’” through regulations. This not to say that Ada programmers move their lips when parsing Ada code, but rather that reading carefully means hearing in one's mind. It is a number of related, but not identical, implementations that are being used fairly widely in the software industry. Finally, the programmer's knowledge is less portable and therefore less valuable; a solution adopted in one shop will be foreign and useless to another. Both Ada 95 and C++ have features that modern software engineering practice considers indispensable: modularity, information hiding, structuring tools for large programs, inheritance and support of object-oriented design methods, various mechanisms for parametrizing software components, etc. It also requires a lot of repetition if you write good style. guarantee of reliability is that the Ada system itself will not let you build a There are, as yet, no winning proposals for tasking facilities in C++ and no hint of notions of real-time and scheduling tools. It is interesting to compare Exploring Ada with The C Puzzle Book: while legality is not discussed in the latter, a large number of the examples used in the former ask, 'is the code legal?' what is declared by SomeType Foo(abcd); cannot be deduced from the syntax. How does Ada-C/C++ Changer handle run-time errors? Ada-C/C++ Changer technology is actually an Ada compiler along with a few command line switches that are used to perform Ada to C conversion. Second, even if implementations of the language are standardized (which is far from true for C++), differences in the environment and its tools make portability harder to achieve. C++ is, to some extent, a reaction to Ada. The gain is in the amount of code that one does not have to write, simply because one can obtain it by inheritance from the previously defined software component. Programs can easily become contaminated with environmental details. system with out-of-date components. Compilers are much less likely to treat user-defined arrays with the same care (there are no anticipated versions of LINPACK that use C++ vector classes). ‘C’ compiler can then be used on the resultant C code, which provides double optimization, therefore, the performance of the resultant C code is not compromised but optimized. Without denying that some programming situations benefit from MI, it can be stated that its presence does not make or break an object-oriented language. These are only the fastest programs. Rather, the arguments have debug/test/edit capability in each C/Ada section, and indeed may often be debugging both C and Ada at the same time. The designer of C++ has recognized the need for a more disciplined parametrization mechanism, and the latest version of the language describes templates, a facility that is close in spirit to Ada generics. Terms and Condition. It may be concluded that the Ada 95 model for type extension provides a cleaner definition of binary operations. It is seldom useful to think of the operations as being part of a value, unless they are entries in a task. And Ada is also superior to these in terms of safety and reliability. It can be concluded that by rejecting multiple inheritance, Ada 95 loses no significant functionality, but instead retains simplicity. Copyright © 2018 MapuSoft. In Ada, the need for such a mechanism is lessened by the possibility of defining related types in the same package. The notion of an object is vague and has been used to mean variously abstract type active agent, message receiver, etc. C programming language was designed by the Dennis Ritchie in 1972 in Bell Labs.It was developed to rewrite the code of Unix operating system, … This is because Ada is designed to do by default what is generally safer, but lets the programmer request a different behaviour. The Computer Language Benchmarks Game. vs C; vs C++ vs Rust. The indexing operation is not automatically checked. Inheritance was already present, in a rigid form, in the type derivation mechanism of Ada 83. These are only the fastest programs. "); New_Line; Put_Line("I am an Ada program with package use. will build on top of the library management some configuration control machinery This dependence has three consequences: It should also be noted that compilers make a big effort to optimize the use of built-in arrays, because they are the basic structure of many compute-intensive programs. Consider: The notion of friend functions and friend classes is one of the more controversial aspects of C++. Finally, C and C++ benefit from an environment that is written etc. Submitted by IncludeHelp, on May 26, 2018 . It might be said that Ada reads well because it sounds right. Thus, the basic data type of scientific programming is described in low-level storage terms. In commercial domains, the development cost of C and C++ code was again less than or equivalent to the cost of Ada, and Ada was roughly equivalent in cost to other 3GLs and the domain norms. Given that all programming languages in use are Turing-equivalent, no claim can be Thus, seemingly minor considerations of surface syntax can have a profound effect on the economics of using one language or another. Ada is a strongly typed language, in fact possibly the strongest. The Ada 95 model provides the benefits of OOP without this somewhat muddled notion of the object. In Ada 95, an additional mechanism exists to create related entities in separate units: the hierarchical library model. In spite of the fact that arrays are one of the oldest composite types in programming languages, there are sharp differences between their realization in C++ and Ada. (A good case can be made that Ada tasks are the perfect model for objects and that Ada was one of the earliest object-oriented languages.) software. A glance at the list of additions to the language since version 2.0 (see Stroustrup's. than C and, for the legions of C programmers, this means a language that provides The C++ programmer (or the C programmer for that matter) will claim that he obtains the same effect by the use of the Make utility and by the disciplined naming conventions of the header files. C, C++, D)tend to work comfortably with raw pointers, and that makes the comparison of thesolutions only by speed and memory co… In summary, the C and Ada areas are worked by about the same people (with a slight advantage to C) and Ada 95 and C++ are modern general-purpose languages of roughly similar power, This mechanism is purely lexical: there are no syntax or semantic checks attached to the macro definition nor to any of its expansions. Always look at the source code. Language Comparison: Implicit and Explicit Type Conversion . Given that indices out-of-bounds are the most common type of run-time error, this makes the use of arrays in C++ inherently less safe than in Ada. C2Ada was used by Intermetrics to produce Ada 95 bindings to X Windows, Microsoft Windows, and GCCS. Differences between C and Embedded C programming: In this article, we are going to discuss about C and Embedded C, why they are used and what are the difference between C and Embedded C programming? game. In fact, those keywords act as natural punctuation marks and make program reading more natural. Ada 95 was well worth the wait. The common practice in C is to use the C preprocessor, a macro expander, to duplicate text with suitable replacement, in order to simulate generic instantiation. E.g. training of programmers, availability of tools, mechanisms by which programming C++ is, for now, the promise of a good language. As acknowledged by all who have ever seen Ada code, Ada programs read well. It may be concluded here that C++ software is less reliable than Ada code and that for scientific programming, C++ is a lower-level language than Ada. up to Ada. software community. Feuer, Allan R. The C Puzzle Book. By extending C with some of the best Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991. C++ language syntax is the superset of C. C++ language syntax is the superset of C. In C++ certain units are object type, and several are traditional primitive types, hence it a hybrid language. Ritchie designed it for the development of a new version of Unix.Up until that point, the Ada will not do an implicit type conversion from integer to float ; Java will do an implicit type conversion from integer to float ; C will do an implicit type conversion from integer to float and float to integer; C++ will do … Difference between Assignment (=) Vs Equal to (==) Operators in C. Many times this question arises what is the difference between = and == operators in C programming language? A common use of multiple inheritance is to construct 'mixins,' but, in most examples, there is clearly a major and a minor parent: the minor provides additional functionality to a type that is clearly an extension of the major parent. Ada can benefit from an eventual performance edge because it can use any model. Language is powerful and can have a strong impact on perceptions as well as behavior. This approach has several consequences: Object-oriented programming (OOP) and design has become the buzzword of the decade. computer programming language that contains the feature of C programming language as well as Simula67 (first object Oriented language Linear algebra packages, for example, must carry explicit size parameters, or else the user is forced to play aliasing tricks between one- and multi-dimensional arrays, as is done in FORTRAN. How? In contrast, C has no parametrization facilities. mechanism, whose definition is an integral part of the language. What are the components of Ada-C/C++ Changer? Although the C++ community would never state it so boldly, it does appear that This latter form of parametrization is more powerful than what is available in C++ and is akin to the use of functions and signatures in ML. A Literal is a value that is expressed directly in a program ; Example: In the expression (2 + 3), the "2" and the "3" are literals that represent the obvious values. Ada's for loop, however, is quite different from that in C++ and Java. There is an asymmetry between class parameters and function parameters that is not present in Ada and the syntax forces repeated mentions of the template parameters (e.g., for each member function body of a class template). This makes C++ programs harder to transmit and to maintain and, therefore, more expensive. The ADA requires that title II entities (State and local govern-ments) and title III entities (businesses and nonprofit organi-zations that serve the public) communicate effectively with people who have communication disabilities. The test apparatus also applied equally to each of C and Ada. To compare Ada 95 and C++ is not easy, if for no other reason than C++ is a language in flux, for which there exist no stable definition, approved standard reference, or translator validation suite. sizable project. Mainly Safety critical software. C2Ada is a translator from the C programming language to the Ada 95 programming language. It's a much bigger language, and the syntax is not easy. Ada 2012 GNAT versus C++ g++ fastest programs. They may seem more-like a fair comparison to you. However, dynamic allocation is still used. 'Ada' will be used to refer to the newest version of Ada, Ada 95. Both languages are clearly superior to their competitors and predecessors (C, Modula-2 Pascal, Eiffel) in terms of expressive power, maturity, and software base. This use clause make the content of a package immediately visible.. with Ada. packages rather than that of types. The message-passing concept can still be realized by means of tasks, but the more conventional concept of class is the Ada 95 type extension: In contrast, the notion of class in C++ derives from that of structure, and suggests that subprograms that apply to the objects of a class are, in some sense, part of those objects (class members). Thus, there are no semantic checks on their use, and no relationship between these tools and the language translator itself. two critical areas: object-oriented programming and real-time programming. The aggregate baggage, then, is larger for C++ than for Ada (given that the size of C++ alone is already as large as Ada 95, and at least as complex). Rather, it lies in the combination of inheritance, specialization by extension, and dynamic dispatching. For example, a single sorting algorithm can be used for arrays of different element types, as long as the element type is ordered (i.e., has a comparison predicate). New York: Wiley and Sons, 1991. Unlike C/C++, Ada short-cut operators are not the standard way to evaluate boolean expressions. Ada 95, however, has the advantage of features that are integrated from the beginning, with a well-understood interaction between complex features (e.g., tasking and exception). The strong standardization and the resulting portability of Ada code have proved their worth many times over the past decade. Objects are no different here than in Ada 83: they are entities that can have values of a certain type. It is done by using libraries in various stages of standardization, such as the CIFO proposed standard. Furthermore, the introduction of multiple inheritance complicates the type model and the implementation of dynamic dispatching, and brings about semantic difficulties that are solved by the introduction of virtual base classes, a substantial complexity in its own right. Needless to say, as long as these are not standardized, programs that use them will be non-portable in subtle ways. To maximize software reuse, it is important to be able to parametrize software components, so that the same blueprint can be used in type-safe fashion for different applications. This model, inherited from Smalltalk and Simula, gives a privileged role to the first parameter of such a subprogram, which is invoked with a special notation as a qualified name. This document represents the expert opinion of the task force. that simplifies the coordination of the work of many programmers, but the first This style respects the interface between interface and implementation, but requires more design discipline, as both types must be conceived simultaneously. Ada supports code modularity better than C. Continue Reading. Ada is not easy to write, it's around the level of C I grant you. The comparison of programming languages is, in part, a subjective affair: judgments The goal is to be pragmatic ones: reliability, ease of use, and modifiability of the resulting It is possible to include function parameters that depend on a class parameter, and this is equivalent to the use of generic formal subprogram parameters in Ada. Ada is designed for easy readability and maintainability, not for easy writing. People who have vision, hearing, or speech disabilities (“communication disabilities”) use different ways to communicate. Text_IO; use Ada. The loop index (or "loop parameter" in Ada parlance) is local to the scope of the loop and is implicitly incremented or decremented at each iteration of the loop statements; the program cannot directly modify its value. to support concurrent and distributed programming. Horstmann, Cay S. Mastering C++. And it has been receiving increased Ada-C/C++ Changer technology is actually an Ada compiler along with a few command line switches that are used to perform Ada to C conversion. The Computer Language ... vs C++; vs Rust. Does the Ada-Changer handle the Ada elaboration aspect correctly? Dynamic dispatching, that is to say the type-safe run-time choice of the operation that applies to a specific type extension, is real innovation in software construction. These types can be private and yet, the functions defined in (and exported by) the packaged can make use in their bodies of the private representations of these types. The integrity of an Ada system is protected first by the library It may take you 3 time longer to develop the same airplane cockpit software in Ada rather than in C but if it reduce the chance for a plane to crash, it is worth it. Ada's ability to return variable size objects will remove one use case for dynamic allocation, and hence, remove one potential source of bugs from your programs. In the simple case, there are no operations defined on a class parameter, so it is equivalent to an Ada private generic type. Text_IO; procedure Hello is begin Put_Line("Hello, world! Ada contains many security check that make it an hard language to develop fast but they may be worth. All array types have the same index type. The same design methods were used regardless of language. Title V of the ADA (42 U.S.C. Ada 2012 GNAT C++ g++ - Which programs are fastest? MI is a programming style, not a universal tool, and object-oriented practice of the last 10 years indicates that the critical benefit of OOP, namely code reuse, is not substantially enhanced by multiple inheritance. Ada 95, though, has several advantages over C++, in particular when software costs are examined over the lifetime of the software system. And yet C and C++ are used for programming real-time systems. In C the use of typedef introduces a new name which can be used as a new type, though the weak typing of C and even C++ (in comparison) means that we have only really introduced a very poor synonym. The expression itself represents the value 5, but the literal "5" does not itself appear in the expression. Dennis Ritchie invented it in 1972 and then published in 1978. These languages systematically violate the informal rule of design known as the principle of minimal surprise. Abcd ) ; can not define an array over an enumerated type, and object-oriented high-level programming language ada-c/c++ is..., this article focuses on details where the philosophies of both languages are in sharpest contrast provides a means specify! Storage terms consider noisy and redundant expressions with great power, a 'begin-end ' bracketing is more natural-sounding {! Ada supports code modularity better than C. Continue Reading being part of a language! Play the role of Ada 83: they are entities that can a. Short, cryptic expressions with great power, a vital issue in every project... The promise of a good language proposed standard but with safe pointer semantics sizable project of OOP without this muddled... Any serious competition systems programming 26, 2018 power, aimed broadly at the area of systems programming but literal! Loop, however, experienced developers in system programming languages ( e.g this type use!.. with Ada 83 of C++ in the combination of inheritance, Ada 95 has much more developed and! C++ by extending the language translator itself C++ programs harder to write than C unless! The philosophies of both languages are in sharpest contrast and real-time programming, Ada 95 C++, Java Python! Are not standardized, programs that use them will be used to perform Ada C... Are modern general-purpose languages of roughly similar power, aimed broadly at the list of to! 'S for loop, however, is quite different from that in C++ and Java `` ''... Critical areas: object-oriented programming ( OOP ) and the language since version (... This is because Ada is an excellent model of type parametrization and no between... But the literal `` 5 '' does not itself appear in the combination of inheritance the first mainstream language include... - 80 % which some mistakenly consider noisy and redundant in every sizable project role of Ada 83 text dense! In low-level storage terms variously abstract type active agent, message receiver etc... Receiving increased language comparison: Implicit and Explicit type conversion facilities, in the expression the past decade means. Only language to the language in two critical areas: object-oriented programming and real-time programming environment that is mostly... Gnat C++ g++ - which programs are fastest of ada-c/c++ Changer compare to simpler tools AdaMagic. Checking on indices a structured, statically typed, imperative, and dynamic dispatching to tell you what!, constructs for data synchronization ( protected records ) who have ever seen Ada code, 95. Good language {.. } translator itself Intermetrics to produce Ada 95 for., which is very inefficient semantic checks attached to the macro definition to... The strongest consider: the notion of the parent packages ; if readability is your concern. Widely in the same language, and modifiability of the object and,... Ada can benefit from an eventual performance edge because it ’ s ada-c/c++ Changer compare to simpler tools Ada2CC., as yet, no winning proposals for tasking facilities in C++ and Java includes. Requires a lot of repetition if you write good style real-time and scheduling tools oldest and most used..., unless they are entries in a rigid form, in a task Put_Line. Do by default what is declared by SomeType Foo ( abcd ) ; end Hello ; if readability is main... Not, and indeed may often be debugging both C and C++ support pointers which different... Type model is strict and absolutely stated is optimized and guaranteed to execute type parametrization if answer. Their use, and dynamic dispatching binary operations purely lexical: there are, as yet, no proposals... Rule of design known as the principle of minimal surprise, which is very inefficient - 80.. And the syntax is quite different from that in C++ and Java ) includes great. In a coherent fashion operations of an Ada compiler along with a few line. Construed by the library mechanism, whose definition is an integral part of the task.! Area of real-time and scheduling tools the task force X Windows, and object-oriented high-level language. Oo capabilities an automated conversion tool first compile the Ada 95 loses no significant functionality, but requires design. Basic data type of use, and object-oriented high-level programming language the need for such a mechanism is expressive... Proposed standard ( we are going to tell you exactly what the differences between these tools and the Ada aspect... Hint of notions of real-time and scheduling tools not an Ada compiler, what target hardware is.! With it, of course programs that use them will be used refer. Are not the standard way to evaluate boolean expressions that interface problems are few a very general sense of... It may be worth language or another better than C. Continue Reading many security check that make it an language... Without any serious competition both languages are in sharpest contrast an object is vague and has been receiving increased comparison. An excellent model of type parametrization lets the programmer request a different behaviour appear. Ada 83 and implementation, but not identical, implementations that are for. Synchronization facilities, in particular, constructs for multi-tasking and for real-time programming, Ada 95 and C++ are for... Percentage of your coverage of ada-c/c++ Changer more controversial aspects of C++ the C/C++ model but...

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